By Trevor M. Penning, J. Mark Petrash
content material: part 1: common review ; 1. creation and evaluate of the Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) Superfamily ; part 2: AKRS AND ENDOGENOUS TOXICANTS ; 2. Aldo-Keto Reductase-Catalyzed Detoxication of Endogenous Aldehydes linked to Diabetic problems ; three. Aldose Reductase Detoxifies Lipid Aldehydes and Their Glutathione Conjugates ; four. function of Aldose Reductase within the detoxing of Oxidized Phospholipids ; part three: AKRS AND EXOGENOUS TOXICANTS: TOBACCO similar cancer causing agents ; five. Competing Roles of Reductases within the cleansing of the Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Ketone NNK ; 6. Aldo-Keto Reductases and the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic fragrant Hydrocarbons ; 7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase from Mouse ; eight effective Synthesis of the lively Metabolites of Carcinogenic Polycyclic fragrant Hydrocarbons ; nine. Chemistry of PAH o-Quinones Generated via the AKR Pathway of PAH Activation ; 10. research of Etheno-2'-Deoxyguanosine Adducts as Dosimeters of AKR Mediated Oxidative rigidity ; part four: AKRS AND EXOGENOUS TOXICANTS: MYCOTOXINS, ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ; eleven. Aflatoxin Aldehyde Reductases ; 12. Competing Reactions of Aflatoxin B1-Dialdehyde: Enzymatic relief vs Adduction with Lysine ; thirteen. using mammalian cellphone strains to enquire the position of aldo-keto reductases within the detoxication of aldehydes and ketones ; part five: AKRS, the strain reaction AND cellphone SIGNALING ; 14. Aldose Reductase and the strain reaction ; 15. Aldose Reductase Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated-Inflammatory signs ; sixteen. Aldo-Keto Reductases within the tension reaction of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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Due to the high affinity of hexokinase, glucose is mostly converted to glucose-6-phosphate and AR-dependent reduction represents only a fraction (>3%) of die total glucose utilization (3-5). However, during hyperglycemia and diabetes, when the cellular availability of glucose is increased, flux through the polyol pathway also increases dramatically (3). Although it could be viewed as a protective mechanism for removing excessive glucose from hyperglycemic tissues, continued glucose metabolism by the polylol pathway could incite tissue injury and dysfunction (3,6).